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NPs Accumulate in the Female Reproductive System during Ovulation Affecting Cancer Treatment

Ovulation dependent nanoparticles uptake

We demonstrate a 2-fold increase in nanoparticle accumulation in murine ovaries and uterus during ovulation, compared to the nonovulatory stage, following intravenous administration. This biodistribution pattern had positive or negative effects when drug-loaded nanoparticles, sized 100 nm or smaller, were used to treat different cancers. For example, treating ovarian cancer with nanomedicines during mouse ovulation resulted in higher drug accumulation in the ovaries, improving therapeutic efficacy.

“The menstrual cycle should be accounted for when designing and implementing nanomedicines for females.”


gender medicine, gold nanoparticles, liposome, mRNA LNP, fertility, ovarian cancer, breast cancer

Our study demonstrates that the menstrual cycle affects the biodistribution of nanoparticles toward the female reproductive system, affecting nanomedicine activity. Biological sex, as an important factor in preclinical research and clinical trials, is already encouraged by the regulatory bodies; however in the field of nanotechnology these considerations are still under-researched. While in many cases female cancer patients undergo ovulation suppression as part of the therapeutic protocol, not all patients undergo this process. We therefore propose that the menstrual cycle should be accounted for when devising nanomedicine-based cancer treatments to females.


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