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Unleashing the potential of cell biomimetic nanoparticles: Strategies and challenges in their design

Biomimetic nanoparticles for therapeutic applications

In this contribution to the Orations - New Horizons of the Journal of Controlled Release, I present design strategies for the two main biomimetic nanoparticles (BNP) groups: BNP composed of isolated cell membrane proteins, and BNP composed of the native cell membrane. I furthermore describe BNP fabrication methods and analyze their advantages and challenges. Finally, I suggest future therapeutic applications of each BNP group and propose a new revolutionary concept for their use.

“BNP have shown great promise in various applications, paving the way for a new generation of nanotherapeutic platforms. Their assembly bridges the gap between synthetic NP and biological materials, thus requiring a multidisciplinary team that can understand and analyze BNP bio- interactions on the one hand and can design, fabricate, and characterizes the BNP on the other hand.”

Keywords

Biomimetic nanoparticles, Drug delivery, Nanomedicine, Cell membrane, Translational therapeutics


I strongly believe that utilizing the recent engineering advances in NP synthesis and characterization that allow more reproducible, non-user depended, robust, controlled, and easier fabrication will enhance the successful translation of BNP into the clinic. Despite my belief and enthusiasm regarding BNP translational potential, various challenges must be addressed. Above all is the membrane or membrane protein source. Should we use cell lines? Patient- derived cells? How do we minimize the variability of these cells? Should we combine membrane or membrane protein from different sources? Next, we should engineer ways to guarantee the correct orientation and reproducible integration of protein to the BNP surface. Finally, we must develop a high-throughput functional assay to assess BNP functionality after their fabrication and the right GMP before providing it to patients. So which kind of BNP should one use? It depends mainly on what you want to target and which cargo you wish to deliver, which is complicated, exactly like nature designed it, but I hope this oration made it a bit easier to decide.

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